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The following is a brief, selected guide to botanical information resources available in Fogler Library, through the Fogler Library home page, and the World Wide Web.

Indexes and Abstracts | Botany Journals Author Instruction Pages | Dictionaries, Glossaries, Encyclopedias | Directories | Herbaria | Electronic Journals | Field and Identification Guides, Checklists, Keys, Atlases | Handbooks and Manuals | Associations and Societies | Virtual Libraries

Botany photo of the day. University of British Columbia Botanical Garden

New Resources since 3/23/2014

Lut, C.W.J. n.d. Guide to the plant species descriptions published in seed lists from botanic gardens for the period 1800-1900. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.


URSUS - the online catalogue of the University of Maine System, contains a wealth of information on botany and related topics. Searching is by author, title, keyword, subject, and call number. Through URSUS you can find books, conference, symposium, and workshop proceeding volumes, University of Maine theses and dissertations, and state, federal, Canadian, and other international documents. Material is catalogued by Library of Congress Subject Headings. The following subject headings may get you started in your search:

aquatic plants, botanical chemistry, botany - classificationethnobotany, herbaria, mycology, paleobotany, plant ecology, plant embryology, plant morphology, seedlings, vegetation and climate

A good way to search URSUS is by keyword. Using the keyword search option you can combine various keywords together using AND, OR, and parentheses. For example, if you wanted to find information on aquatic plants in Maine your search might look like this:

(marine or aquatic) and (botany or plant or plants) and maine

Once you have found something of interest note the subject headings and use these in your search.

Indexes and Abstracts

Agricola 1970-present online
Bibliography of Agriculture. ORO Sci Index S1.U52. 1942-1996 (1980-1996 in Annex)
. If you are connecting to this database off the University of Maine campus but within the State of Maine, please connect through Maine's Science, Technology & Business Library.
Index to materials acquired by the National Agricultural Library (NAL) and cooperating institutions. Includes journal articles, monographs, series, and materials in many non-print formats covering a broad range of agricultural topics.  The Bibliography of Agriculture (print form of Agricola) can be searched by subject, author, and geographic location. The Web version can be searched in a variety of ways including author, title and abstract keyword, and CAB descriptors. From 1979-1985 international in scope. From 1985+ focuses on U.S. related publications. Note that the National Agricultural Library provides its own Web interface to Agricola from 1970 to present. There is an online thesaurus.  Updated monthly.

APIRS Online - the Database of Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants. Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System from the Center for Aquatic Plants, University of Florida. 55,000+ citations on ecology, physiology, utilization, and control. 

BIOSIS Previews [computer file], 1926-present
BIOSIS Previews, worldwide in scope, indexes the literature of the biological and biomedical sciences. The premier database in the biological sciences, subject coverage includes agriculture, biochemistry, bioengineering, botany, ecology, genetics, microbiology, pharmacology, and zoology. Approximately 5,500 serial publications (see Biosis Previews serials list) as well as books, proceedings and meeting abstracts, technical reports, review papers, and patents are indexed. There are 58 separate data fields that can be searched including author, title, publication source, organism, concepts, super taxa, publication type, author affiliation, and abstract keyword. Searches can be limited to review articles.

Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System. Derek B. Munro, Biological Informatics Specialist, Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Government of Canada

Carnivorous Plant Database
Nomenclature synopsis for 3,000+ carnivorous plants. Maintained by Rick Walker, HP Labs. last updated 2/18/2010.  See also Carnivorous Plant Photo Finder. Bob Ziemer, Humboldt State University.

Current Research Information System
A searchable database of U.S. Department of Agriculture funded research. Search by keyword, investigator, agency, institution, state, and project status and type. Many records include a list of publications resulting from the research.

FDA Poisonous Plant Database
An searchable database of over 85,000 references on poisonous plants. Maintained by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Last updated 5/2008

Fungal databases
A set of databases from the Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service.  Includes literature, fungal-host,  nomenclature, and specimen database. Fully searchable.

Index to American Botanical Literature
A searchable database of American botanical literature from late 1995 to present.  Search by subject category (eg. algae, fungi, etc.), author, article title, journal name, publisher, and keywords.  New York Botanical Garden.

Index to Mosses Database (W3MOST)
Searchable by scientific name. Project of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

A searchable database of full-text scholarly journals including several major botanical journals: American Journal of Botany (1914-2004), Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (1914-2006), Brittonia (1931-2004), International Journal of Plant Sciences (1992-2004) - Botanical Gazette (1876-1991) - Botanical Bulletin (1875-1876), Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society (1997-2006) - Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club (1870-1996), Missouri Botanical Garden Annual Report (1890-1912), New Phytologist (1902-2006), and Systematic Botany (1976-2004).  

Native American Ethnobotany Database - Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples
A searchable database of uses of over 4,000 plant species from 243 plant families. Authored by Daniel E. Moerman, Professor of Anthropology, University of Michigan-Dearborn. 

Plantfacts Factsheet Database
A searchable database of horticultural and crop science information from forty-six U.S. and Canadian institutions. Maintained by the Ohio State University Department of Horticultural and Crop Science.

Plants Database
Taxonomic information from USDA, Natural Conservation Service, National Plant Data Center. See the following derived database Vascular Plants of New England by Prof. Ray Phillips, Colby College.

Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Other Animals
Search database scientific or common name, primary poison, and species most often affected. Listing of plant species by common and scientific names.  Also lists toxic agents in plants and animal species commonly affected. Maintained by Dan Brown, Cornell University.

RBG, Kew Database (EPIC - Electronic Plant Information Centre)
From the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Searchable databases of vascular plant families and genera, authors of plant names, and collections. 

Recent literature on lichens.
From the American Bryological and Lichenological Society as published in The Bryologist, this searchable database contains over 24,000 references dated 1536 to present.  Search by author, journal name, and keyword from the title, keyword, or abstract fields.  Limit searches by material type: articles, books, chapters, or reviews.  Last updated 2011

Review of Plant Pathology - 1973-present
Sci Index SB599.R4. 1970-2002
Index to plant pathology literature including information on diseases of crop and ornamental plants as well as forest trees.  Coverage includes taxonomy, molecular biology, control, genetics, and physiology. Review of Plant Pathology in print form can be searched by author and CAB descriptors. The Web version can be searched in a variety of ways including author, title and abstract keyword, and CAB descriptors. Indexes 1,000+ journals, as well as books, reports, and conference proceedings. Updated monthly. 

Seed Information Database. release 7.1, 05/2008. Flynn, S., Turner, R.M., and Stuppy, W.H.
Search for seed information by family, genus, and species and limit by storage behavior. Information includes 1000 seed weight, oil content, protein content, and literature cited. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew

Tropicos nomenclatural database
Key in a scientific name of a plant and retrieve information on its name, publications citing the name, lists of specimens and maps, and homonyms and infraspecific taxa.  Developed by the Missouri Botanical Garden

Web of Science. 1899-present
Science Citation Index
Sci Index Q1.A1S36
Web of Science includes Science Citation Index from 1899-present.  Search by word in the title, keyword, and abstract.  Perform cited reference searches from 1900 to present. Limit by author affiliation and document type. See the master journal list

Weed Abstracts - 1973-present
Sci Index SB611.W35. 1960-2002. 
Index to weed control, biology, ecology literature in over 1,000 journals as well as reports, conference proceedings, and books. Weed Abstracts in print form can be searched by author and CAB descriptor. The Web version can be searched in a variety of ways including author, title and abstract keywords, and CAB descriptor. Both forms are updated monthly.

Botany Journals Author Instruction Pages

American Journal of Botany  

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

The Bryologist

Canadian Journal of Botany (now Botany)

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology

Current Genetics
Environmental and Experimental Botany
Journal for Environmental Horticulture

Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry

Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal of General Plant Pathology

Journal of Phytopathology

Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
Molecular Genetics and Genomics

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Molecular Plant

Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Mycological Research

Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology

Plant Cell
Plant and Soil

Plant Ecology

Plant Molecular Biology Reporter

Plant Systematics and Evolution



Systematic Botany

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Dictionaries, Glossaries, Encyclopedias

Armitage's garden encyclopedia [:] a color encyclopedia. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 368p.
Sci Ref SB422.A68 2004

Beentje, H. 2010. The Kew plant glossary: an illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Richmond, Surrey: Kew. 160p.
Sci Ref QK9.B44 2010

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. New Haven: Yale University Press. 795p.
Sci Ref QK586.5 .B76 2001

Brown, D. 2001. New encyclopedia of herbs & their uses. London: DK. 448p.
Sci Ref SB351.H5B6464 2001

Bryological Glossary (mosses). From the Missouri Botanical Garden 

Chemical dictionary of economic plants. 2001. Chichester, UK: John Wiley. 217p.
Sci Ref QK861.C45 2001

Common Names of Plant Diseases. Includes both fungal and viral diseases. From the American Phytopathological Society

D'Arcy, C.J., Eastburn, D.M., and Schumann, G.L. 2001. Illustrated glossary of plant pathology. The Plant Health Instructor.

A dictionary of plant sciences. 1998. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 508p.
Sci Ref QK9 .C67 1998

Dictionary of renewable resources. 1997. Weinheim: VCH. 320p. 
Sci Ref S584.4 .D53 1997
Includes economic botany 

Dictionary of the fungi. Based on Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Minter, D.W., and Stalpers, J.A. 2008. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 771p.
Sci Ref QK600.35.A35 2008

Dirr, M.A. 2002. Dirr's trees and shrubs for warm climates[:] An illustrated encyclopedia.  Portland, OR: Timber Press. 446p.
Sci Ref SB435.52.S86D57 2002

Dirr, M.A. 2011. Dirr's encyclopedia of trees & shrubs. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 951p.
Sci Ref SB435.D57 2011

Duke, J.A. 1994. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 215p. 
Sci Ref GN564.P4 D85 1994 

Elsevier's dictionary of fungi and fungal plant diseases. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. 400p.
Sci Ref QK603.3.E58 1998

Elsevier's dictionary of plant names and their origin. 2000. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. 1001p.
Sci Ref QK13 .E565 2000 

Encyclopedia of plant pathology. 2001. 2 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
Sci Ref SB728 .E53 2001

Glossary of arboricultural terms. 2009. International Society of Arboriculture.
Sci Ref SB435.H317

Harris, J.G. 1994. Plant identification terminology : an illustrated glossary. Spring Lake, UT: Spring Lake Publishing. 197p. 
Sci Ref QK9 .H37 1994 

Houtman, R. 2004. Variegated trees & shrubs[:] The illustrated encyclopedia. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 338p.
Sci Ref SB435.H825 2004

Hyam, R. 1995. Plants and their names: a concise dictionary. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; London: Royal Botanic Garden. 545p. 
Sci Ref QK96 .P35 1995

Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., David, J.C., and Stalpers, J.A. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. 9th ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 655p.
Sci Ref QK600.35.A35 2001

Lichen glossary. University of Maine, Fort Kent Herbarium

Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant-book : a portable dictionary of the vascular plants utilizing Kubitzki's The families and genera of vascular plants (1990-), Cronquist's An integrated system of classification of flowering plants (1981), and current botanical literature, arranged largely on the principles of editions 1-6 (1896/97- 1931) of Willis's A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 2nd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York: Cambridge University Press. 858p. 
Sci Ref QK11 .M29 1997 

Malcolm, B. and Malcolm, N. 2000. Mosses and other bryophytes - an illustrated glossary. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press. 220p.
Sci Ref QK537.M35 2000

Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 286p. Sci Ref SB45.5 .M85 1994.

On-line glossary of technical terms in plant pathology
Created by Dr. Phil A. Arneson, Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University. Brief definitions, in many cases, accompanied by audio pronunciations.

Plant characteristics - a list of specialist words which might be used in field guides. The Virtual Herbarium. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford.

Plant Dictionary - Photos or ornamental plants and pests The Ohio State University
Teaching resources for horticulture and crop science. 

Riffle, R.L., Craft, P., and Zona, S.  2012. The encyclopedia of cultivated palms. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 517p.
Sci Ref SB317.P3.R54 2012

Schlegel, R.H.J. 2010. Dictionary of plant breeding. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 571p.
SciRef SB123.S32 2010

Tucker, A.O. and DeBaggio, T. 2009. The encyclopedia of herbs[:] A comprehensive reference to herbs of flavor and fragrance. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 604p. (Note: Excellent reference list p. 505-598)
Sci Ref SB351.H5T777 2009

UCMP glossary, Volume 8: Botany.
Glossary of botanical terms from the Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley.  

Ulloa, M. and Hanlin, R.T. 2000. Illustrated dictionary of mycology. St. Paul, MN: APS Press, 448p.
Sci Ref QK600.35.U4313 2000

Wielgorskaya, T. 1995. Dictionary of generic names of seed plants. New York: Columbia University Press. 570p. 
Sci Ref QK11 .W52 1995 


The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. International Plant Science Center, The New York Botanical  Garden.
Search this virtual collection of over 1,300,000 specimens and 225,000 high-resolution images.

Harvard University Herbarium. Index of botanical specimens
Search over 117,000 records by scientific name, author, collector, and geographic location.  

Index herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. 8th ed. New York Botanical Garden.
Search by institutions and people.

Lichen herbarium. Arizona State University. worldwide

Lichen herbarium.  University of Maine, Fort Kent

MBLWHOI Library Digital Herbarium. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

National Museum of Natural History Botanical Type Register. Search for ferns, flowering plants, mosses, hepatics, lichens, and algae. Over 88,000 records from the Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History 

Plant identification center [herbaria] collections databases
A searchable database of herbaria listing 104 herbaria.  Press Find without putting in a search statement to look at the 104 herbaria listed.  Links are provided for those that are online. Department of Plant Biology Herbarium, North Carolina State University.

University of Maine herbaria. Search the following 3 databases: Maine vascular plants, Mosses, and Lichens


1995 Plant conservation directory. 1995. [St. Louis, MO]: Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden. 90p.  
Sci Ref QK86.U6 P526 1995

International directory of botanical gardens V. 1990. 5th ed.  Koenigstein/Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books; Champaign, IL: Koeltz Scientific Books. 1021p. 
Sci Ref QK71 .I5 1990 E


Electronic Journals

Electronic Sites of Leading Botany, Plant Biology and Science Journals. From, World-Wide-Web Virtual Library.

Field and Identification Guides, Checklists,  Keys, Atlases

Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Index
Alphabetical list by common and scientific name.  Many of the descriptions are from:

Sievers, A.F. 1930. The Herb Hunters Guide American Medicinal Plants of Commercial Importance. Misc. Publ. No. 77. USDA, Washington DC. 

Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Paul Schulte, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Atlas of the Flora of New England
Includes scientific and common names and distribution maps. An ongoing project by Ray Angelo and David E. Boufford.

Bryophyte Flora of North America. Missouri Botanical Garden

Bryson, C.T. and DeFelice, M.S. (eds.) 2009. Weeds of the south. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 468p.
Sci Ref SB612.S85W44 2009.

Carnivorous Plant Photo Finder. Bob Ziemer, Humboldt State University

Catalog of botanical illustrations. Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
Search by generic name, select within a family or genus. Browse collection by family.

Checklist of Online Vegetation and Plant Distribution Maps
Compiled by Claire Englander and Philip Hoehn, Earth Sciences and Map Library, University of California, Berkeley. 

Cladoniaceae - searchable list of names in the Cladoniaceae (lichens). National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Cope, E.A. 2001. Muenscher's keys to woody plants[:]an expanded guide to native and cultivated species. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates. 337p.
Sci Ref QK115.C69 2001

Crow, G.E. and Hellquist, C.B. 2000.  Aquatic and wetland plants of northeastern North America. Volume 1: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. Volume 2: Angiosperms: Monocotyledons. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Vol. 1: 480p., Vol. 2: 400p.
Sci Ref QK117.C84 2000

Cullen, J. 2005. Hardy rhododendron species[:] A guide to identification. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 494p.
Sci Ref QK495.E68C85 2005 Primary flora of a number of countries and geographic regions including North America.

Esslinger, T.L. (no date). A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University.

Feuerer, T. (ed.) 2011. Checklists of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Version 1

Foster, S. 2000. A field guide to medicinal plants : eastern and central North America. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 411p. 
Sci Ref QK99.U6 F68 2000

Frohne, D. and Pfander, H.J. 2005. Poisonous plants - A handbook of doctors, pharmacists, toxicologists, biologists and veterinarians.  Portland, OR: Timber Press. 469p.
Sci Ref QK100.A1F7613 2005

Grimm, W.C. 1993. The illustrated book of wildflowers and shrubs: the comprehensive field guide to more than 1,300 plants of Eastern North America. Rev. ed. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. 637p. 
ORO stacks QK112 .G75 1993

A guide to common marine organisms along the coast of Maine. 1998. Orono, ME : Maine/New Hampshire Sea Grant. 56p. 
ORO stacks QH104.5.N4 G8 1998
. (also in Special Collections)

Guide to poisonous and toxic plants. [1994] Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Entomological Science Division and Sanitation and Hygiene Program. 70p. 
ORO Gov Doc D 101.6/5:P 75 

Haines, A. 1998. Flora of Maine: a manual for identification of native and naturalized vascular plants of Maine. Bar Harbor, ME: V.F. Thomas Co. ORO Reserve Maine QK164 .H356 1998

Haines, A. 2011. New England Wild Flower Society's flora novae angliae - a manual for the identification of native and naturalized higher vascular plants of New England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 973p.
Sci Ref QK121.H35 2011

Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. 2007. The macrolichens of New England: Descriptions, color illustrations, identification keys, conservation status. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden Press. 584p.
Sci Ref QK1.N525 v. 96

Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated companion to Gleason and Cronquist's manual: illustrations of the vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden. 937p. 
Sci Ref QK117 .H65 1998.

HOSTS - A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Robinson, G.S., Ackery, P.R., Kitching, I.J., Beccaloni, G.W., and Hernandez, L.M. Natural History Museum.

Index Fungorum
A searchable database coordinated by CABI Bioscience, Fungal Biodiversity Centre, and Landcare Research.

Includes exotic plant names and weed distribution for Washington, Oregon, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Search by scientific or common name or select from lists. Peter Rice, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula.

Invasive plant atlas of New England (IPANE). 2003. Storrs, CT: Department of ecology and evolutionary biology, University of Connecticut. Developed and maintained by J.L. Mehrhoff, J.A. Silander, jr., S.A. Leicht, E.S. Mosher and N.M. Tabak.
Search the catalogue by species and create a map of its distribution.

The International Plant Names Index. Names and bibliographical information on all seed plants. collaboration between Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, The Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium.

Invasive plant fact sheets (Maine). Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Maine Natural Areas Program

2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesIUCN - The World Conservation Union

Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 2 vols.
Sci Ref QK110.K37 1994

Knight, A.P. Guide to poisonous plants. Colorado State University.
Search by keyword or by common name.  Includes botanical name, habitat, distribution, photographs, description, and affected animals.

Larson, G.E. 1993. (version 02Feb99) Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the northern great plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-238. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. 

Levine, C. 1995. A guide to wildflowers in winter: herbaceous plants of northeastern North America. New Haven: Yale University Press. 329p. 
ORO stacks QK117 .L48 1995

Lincoln, M.S.G. 2008. Liverworts of New England. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden Press. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Vol. 99. 161p.
Sci Ref QK556.L56 2008

Llamas, K.A. 2003. Tropical flowering plants[:] A guide to identification and cultivation. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 423p.
Sci Ref SB407.L59 2003

Magee, D.W. and Ahles, H.E. 1999. Flora of the Northeast : a manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 1213 p.
Sci Ref  QK121 .M34 1999

Maine rare plant list and rare plant fact sheets. Maine Department of Conservation, Agriculture and Forestry, Maine Natural Areas Program

Midwestern Wetland Flora. Field Office Guide to Plant Species. USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Alphabetical list of 300 midwest wetland vascular plants.  Each record includes photography, drawing, range map, and brief field marks, description, and natural history information.

Mittlehauser, G.H., Gregory, L.L., Rooney, S.C., and Weber, J.E. (Compilers and eds.) 2010. The plants of Acadia National Park. Orono, ME: University of Maine Press. 530p.
Sci Ref QK164.P53 2010

Names in current use for extant plant genera. NCU-3e. electronic version 1. edited by W. Greuter, B. Zimmer, and W.G. Berendsohn. International Association for Plant Taxonomy.

Native plant database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin.
Includes over 7,000 native plants. Includes images, plant characteristics, bloom color and time, and distribution.

Newcomb, L. 1977. Newcomb's Wildflower guide : an ingenious new key system for quick, positive field identification of the wildflowers, flowering shrubs and vines of Northeastern and North Central North America. Boston : Little, Brown. 490p. 
Sci Ref QK118 .N42

Northeast Wetland Flora. Field Office Guide to Plant Species. USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Alphabetical list of 300 Northeastern wetland vascular plants.  Each record includes photography, drawing, range map, and brief field marks, description, and natural history information.

Parmeliaceae - searchable list of names in the Parmelioid genera (lichens). National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

PhytoImages. Southern Illinois University. Over 19,000 images searchable by taxon, common name, and locality.

Plant Database. British Antarctic Survey. Searchable database that can be restricted by geographic location.

Plant Image Collection. Department of Botany, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Search by photographer, common name, scientific name, and family.  The database contains over 31,000 images.

The Plant List - a working list of all plant species. 2010. Version 1. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden.

Plant Systematics Collection. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Access information by Phylum, Family, Genus, and common name.

Poisonous Plants Informational Database. Animal Science Department, Cornell University. 

Pope, R. 2005. Lichens above treeline[:] A hiker's guide to alpine zone lichens of the Northeastern United States. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 69p.
Sci Ref QK587.P67 2005

Rapid Lichen Guides. Searchable guide from The Field Museum, Chicago, IL.

Seidemann, J. 2005. World spice plants. Berlin: Springer. 591p.
Sci Ref SB305.S45 2005

Southern Wetland Flora. Field Office Guide to Plant Species. USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Alphabetical list of 300 Southern wetland vascular plants.  Each record includes photography, drawing, range map, and brief field marks, description, and natural history information.

Species in parks. Flora and fauna databases. Information Center for the Environment, University of California, Davis and the National Park Service. Search database by National Park service site or species name.

Stubbendieck, J., Hatch, S.L., and Landholt, L.M. 2003. North American wildland plants [:] a field guide. Lincoln, NE; University of Nebraska. 501p.
Sci Ref SB193.3.N67S88 2003

Threatened and endangered species: Plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Tiner, R.W. 1987. A field guide to coastal wetland plants of the northeastern United States. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 285p. 
Sci Ref QK118 .T56 1987

Tiner, R.W. 2009. Field guide to tidal wetland plants of the northeastern United States and neighboring Canada: vegetation of beaches, tidal flats, rocky shores, marshes, swamps, and coastal ponds. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 459p.
Sci Ref QK117.T56 2009

Turner, N.J. and von Aderkas, P. 2009. The North American guide to common poisonous plants and mushrooms. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 375p.
Sci Ref QK100.N6T87 2009

U.S. County-Level Atlas of Vascular Flora of North America. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2010. Chapel Hill, N.C.  [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2010. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0 Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Includes both US counties and states.

University of Wisconsin Plant Teaching Collection. Michael Clayton, Collection Manager

Vascular plants of the Orono Bog Boardwalk. Maintained by Dr. Chris Campbell, University of Maine.

Wagstaff, J. 2008. International poisonous plants checklist - an evidence-based reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.443p. Sci Ref QK100.A1W34 2008.

Watanabe, T. 2010. Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi - Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species. Boca Raton, F: CRC Pres. 404p.
Sci Ref QR111.W267 2010

Weed identification. Information Systems and Technology. Illinois Council on Food and Agricultural Research.
Key out weeds by type, leaf width, leaf arrangement, leaflets, seed leaf shape, leaf edge, leaf hair, flower color, flower petal appearance, petiole length, flower type, growth habits, ligule, and leaf cycle. Includes color images.

Western Wetland Flora. Field Office Guide to Plant Species. USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Alphabetical list of 300 Northeastern wetland vascular plants.  Each record includes photography, drawing, range map, and brief field marks, description, and natural history information.

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. Kew.
Search by family, genus, or species.

World Wide Flowering Plant Family Identification. Biology 211 - Flowering Plant Taxonomy: Principles and Methods of Biological Classification. Colby College. Professor Ray Phillips.

Handbooks and Manuals

Albers, F. and Meve, U. 2002. Illustrated handbook of succulent plants[:] Asclepiadaceae. Berlin: Springer. 318p.
Sci Ref QK495.A815I58 2002

Alford, D.V. 2012. Pests of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers: A color handbook. 2nd ed. Boston: Elsevier. 480p.
Sci Ref SB608.O7A44 2012

Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Fact sheets. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group. Hosted by the National Park Service website.

Armitage, A.M. 2011. Armitage's garden perennials. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 347p.
Sci Ref SB434.A755 2011

Armitage, A.M. 2001. Armitage's manual of annuals, biennials, and half-hardy perennials. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 539p.
Sci Ref SB422.A66 2001

Bonner, F.T. and Karrfalt, R.P. 2008. The woody plant disease manual. Washington, D.C.: USDA
Oro Gov Doc A1.76:727

Botanical Society of America online image collection.
Search by broad subject categories or key word.

Burrows, G.E. and Tyrl, R.J. 2001. Toxic plants of North America. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1342p.
Sci Ref QK100.N6B87 2001

Bryan, J.E. 2002. Bulbs. Rev. Ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 524p.
Sci Ref SB425.B74 2002

Dirr, M.A. 2009. Manual of woody landscape plants - their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing. 1325p.
Sci Ref SB435.5.D57 2009

Dortort, F. 2011. The Timber Press guide to succulent plants of the world - a comprehensive reference to more than 2000 species. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 344p.
Sci Ref SB438.D67 2011

Eggli, U. (ed.). 2001. Illustrated handbook of succulent plants[:] Monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer. 354p.
Sci Ref QK495.A14I45 2001

Elzebroek, T. and Wind, K. 2008. Guide to cultivated plants. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 540p.
SciRef SB107.E49 2008

Fire Effects Information. USDA, Forest Service. Search by scientific or common name or tree, shrub, vine, fern etc., for information on fire ecology and effects, distribution, management, and botanical and ecological characteristics.

Flowering Plant Gateway
Detailed information on the four systems of flowering plant classification: Cronquist, Takhtajan, Thorne, and APG. Developed and maintained by Dr. Hugh D. Wilson, Texas A&M University

Frodin, D.G. 2001. Guide to standard floras of the world[:] An annotated, geographically arranged systematic bibliography of the principal floras, enumerations, checklists and chorological atlases of different areas. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1100p.
Sci Ref Z5351.F76 2001

Global land environments since the last interglacial
These ecosystem maps, examining vegetation patterns, are grouped by region.  Note that there is a "...still under development and as-yet unpublished" disclaimer.  This site, compiled from existing literature, contains a wealth of references on palaeovegetation.  Developed and maintained by Jonathan Adams, Biological Sciences, Seoul National University.

Grass manual on the web
Click on a species name from a pull down menu and select one of the following to display: map, treatment, illustration, image, or notes.  Hosted by the University of Utah as part of the Manual of Grasses for North America project.

GrassBase - The online world grass flora
From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, morphological descriptions of all grass species in a searchable database.

GRIN taxonomy for plants. World economic plants in GRIN
Taxonomic data for 37,000 taxa, 14,000 genera of plants, with a focus on economic plants. Maintained by the Agricultural Research Service, Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

Gray, A. 1987. Gray's manual of botany : a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 8th ed. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632p. 
Sci Ref QK117 .G75 1987 

Horst, R.K. (reviser) 2008. Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook. 7th ed. Berlin: Springer. 1317p. 
Sci Ref SB 731 W47 2008

Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN). Missouri Botanical Garden

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature 
Adopted by the Sixteenth International Botanical Congress, St. Louis, Missouri, July-August 1999. 

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne code): Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Konigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. 208p.
Sci Ref QK96.I584 2011

Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Searchable list of scientific names of plants with a focus on North America. Developed and maintained by a partnership of agencies and organizations.
A searchable database of government web sites on terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic plants. Maintained by the National Agricultural Library for the National Invasive Species Council.

Johnson, T. 1999. CRC ethnobotany desk reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 1211p.
Sci Ref  GN476.73 .J66 1999 

Jones, R.K. and Benson, D.M. (eds.) 2001. Diseases of woody ornamentals and trees in nurseries. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society. 482p.
ORO Stks SB761.D57 2001

Krieger, R. (ed.) 2001. Handbook of pesticide toxicology. V. 1: Principles, V2: Agents. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press. 1908p.
Sci Ref RA 1270.P4H36 2001.

Liesner, R. (compiler). Field techniques used by Missouri Botanical Garden.

Lut, C.W.J. n.d. Guide to the plant species descriptions published in seed lists from botanic gardens for the period 1800-1900. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

May, P.F., Brodo, I.M., and Esslinger, T.L. 2002. Identifying North American Lichens: A Guide to the Literature.
Contains general references, online lichens keys, and a lichen bibliography by genus. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University.

Noxious weeds in the US and Canada. Invaders Database System. Supported by USDA/ARS. Investigators from the University of Nebraska, USDA/ARS Western Region Research Center, and the University of Montana

Plant Pathology Fact Sheets. Cooperative Extension - The Pennsylvania State University. Includes information on the disease, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management.  Maintained by Gary W. Moorman, Professor of Plant Pathology, Penn State University. 

Selected guidelines for ethnobotanical research : a field manual. 1996. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden. 306p. 
ORO stacks GN476.73 .S453 1996

Singer Index Database
A searchable database of genera, species, and infraspecific taxa of fungi described by Singer.

Slocum, P.D. 2005. Waterlilies and lotuses[:]Species, cultivars, and new hybrids. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 260p.
SB 413.L7S55 2005

Stearn, W.T. 1992. Botanical Latin: history, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary. 4th ed. Newton Abbot [England]: David & Charles. 546p. 
Sci Ref QK10 .S7 1992

USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. Prepared by the U.S. National Arboretum. See also Plant Hardiness Zones of Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

van Wyk, B-E. 2005. Food plants of the world[:] An illustrated guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 480p.
Sci Ref QK98.5.A1V36 2005

Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 and onwards. Grass genera of the world: Descriptions, illustration, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, photochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version 23 April 2010. 

Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world[:] A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB Publishing. 548p.
Sci Ref SB613.5.W43 2003

Associations and Societies

American Bryological and Lichenological Society
American Phytopathological Society
American Society of Plant Biologists
American Society of Plant Taxonomists
Botanical Society of America
Canadian Botanical Association
International Association for Plant Taxonomy
Mycological Society of America
Society for Economic Botany
Torrey Botanical Society

Virtual Libraries

Botanical Links. Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History

Botany/Plant Biology WWW Virtual Library. Maintained by Scott Russell, University of Oklahoma

Internet Directory for Botany. Maintained by Anthony R. Brach.

The Mycology.Net. Cooperating institutions: Botanische Staatssammlung München, Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Berlin, University of Bayreuth, Department of Mycology, and University of Oslo, Botanical Museum.

PlantGDB. Resources for comparative plant genomics

University of California Museum of Paleontology. Paleobotany Collection: catalogs and information.

Return to the guides listing

Created by: Jim Bird | Revised: 06/20/2014
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